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Making Friends

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Summary

Students will examine the significance of the Louisiana Purchase and the journey of Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery. They will recognize the features of the Jefferson Peace Medal and will make comparisons between it and the Peace Medal nickel. Students will also explore ways to communicate between different cultures.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • Students will examine the significance of the Louisiana Purchase and the journey of Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery.
  • They will recognize the features of the Jefferson Peace Medal and will make comparisons between it and the Peace Medal nickel.
  • Students will also explore ways to communicate between different cultures.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Grades

  • First grade

Class Time

Sessions: Two
Session Length: 20-30 minutes
Total Length: 0-45 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs

Background Knowledge

The students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The location of the United States and the Pacific Ocean
  • Land formations

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (heads)
  • Reverse (tails)
  • Medal
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Explorer
  • Louisiana Territory
  • American Indians
  • Peace
  • Friendship
  • Nickel

Materials

  • An assortment of medals (sports, military, scholastic, etc.)
  • Chart paper
  • Markers
  • Copies of an age-appropriate text that provides basic historical information about the
  • Lewis and Clark expedition, such as:
    • A Picture Book of Sacagawea by David Adler
    • How We Crossed the West; The Adventures of Lewis and Clark by Rosalyn Schanzer
    • Seaman’s Journal: On the Trail with Lewis and Clark by Patti Reeder Eubank
    • Going Along with Lewis and Clark by Barbara Fifer
  • The “Louisiana Territory Map”1 class map of the United States from the Resource Guide
  • 1 overhead transparency of the Jefferson Peace Medal reverse from the Resource Guide
  • Peace Medal nickels (1 per student)
  • Copies of the “Making Peace” worksheet

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency of the “Louisiana Territory Map” from the Resource Guide.
  • Locate an appropriate text that provides basic historical information about the Lewis and Clark expedition (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Make an overhead transparency of the Jefferson Peace Medal reverse from the Resource Guide.
  • Gather some Peace Medal nickels (1 per student).
  • Make copies of the “Making Peace” worksheet (1 per student).
  • Peace” worksheet (1 per student).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/162.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display an assortment of medals. Ask students to identify reasons why people receive medals. Record the students’ responses on chart paper for all to see. Ask students how they would feel if they were to receive a medal.
  2. Explain that the students will listen to a true story about a group of explorers who brought medals with them on their trip. Ask them to listen for why this group brought medals with them and to whom they presented the medals. Also ask the students to listen for ways in which the explorers demonstrated friendship.
  3. Introduce students to the selected text. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate predictions about what is occurring at different points in the book.
  4. Read this story aloud to the group. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary and difficult concepts.
  5. Ask the students to explain who Lewis and Clark were and why Lewis and Clark traveled across the country.
  6. After reading the story, display the overhead transparency of the “Louisiana Territory Map.” Point out the states that were part of the United States before the Louisiana Purchase. Add to the map the land features that the Corps of Discovery encountered during their journey, including rivers and mountains.
  7. Display the transparency of the Jefferson Peace Medal reverse and introduce this medal to the students as the one carried by the Lewis and Clark expedition. Ask students to examine and identify the images that appear on the medal. Briefly discuss the meaning of these images.
  8. Ask students to identify who the explorers met along the way. The students should discuss why Lewis and Clark presented medals to these American Indian chiefs. Add responses to the chart that was begun earlier.

Session 2

  1. Revisit the image of the Jefferson Peace Medal reverse and ask the students to recall who carried the medal and what it was used for.
  2. Ask students if medals are used in the same way as coins. Ask students how the two differ.
  3. Explain that it has been 200 years since Lewis and Clark made their journey, and that the United States has made new nickels that will tell the story of Lewis and Clark’s travels to honor this anniversary. Distribute a Peace Medal nickel to each student and allow them time to thoroughly examine each side.
  4. As a class, discuss the similarities and differences between the Jefferson Peace Medal and the Peace Medal nickel.
  5. Ask the students to recall the meaning of these symbols from the previous discussion. Elaborate on the symbol that represents “peace and friendship” and why the symbol was important to Lewis and Clark’s success.
  6. Ask the students how they would approach and try to communicate with someone who spoke a different language. How would they communicate that they were friendly without words?
  7. Assign each student a partner and give each student a copy of the “Making Peace” worksheet.
  8. Explain that the students will imagine that their partner does not know or understand them. On their “Making Peace” worksheet, students will design a medal to communicate peace and friendship to their new friend. Remind them to consider what they think their partner might like.
  9. Once the students have finished, they should exchange their medals and shake hands to indicate their new friendship.
  10. Have the students cut out their design, punch a hole at the top, and use a paper clip and some string to turn the illustration into a peace medal. Allow the students to wear the medals they exchanged.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Encourage students to read one of the books and write a few sentences or a paragraph about the Lewis and Clark expedition, describing the interaction between the American Indians and the explorers.
  • Point out the Latin words “E PLURIBUS UNUM” below the handshake. Explain that it means “one out of many.” Have the students hypothesize and write about the meaning of this phrase.
  • Examine the handshake symbol and determine which hand belongs to a soldier (buttons) and which hand belongs to an American Indian (beads).

Enrichments/Extensions

Keep theme-related books about Lewis and Clark and the Louisiana Purchase in the class library so that the children can read them at their leisure.

Take anecdotal notes about whether or not the students:

  • Understand that the handshake indicates “friendship and peace”
  • Can state the purpose of Lewis and Clark’s journey
  • Understand the difference between a coin and a medal
  • Understand the purpose of the Jefferson Peace Medal used by Lewis and Clark

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.1 Language
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
    • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
    • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
    • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
    • Use frequently occurring adjectives.
    • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
    • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
    • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
    • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize dates and names of people.
    • Use end punctuation for sentences.
    • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
    • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
    • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.1.4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • RL.1.5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • RL.1.6. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.1.7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
  • RL.1.8. Not applicable to literature.
  • RL.1.9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.1 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.1.4. begins in grade 3.
  • W.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • W.1.6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.1.2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • RL.1.3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.1.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    • Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • SL.1.2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.1.3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.1.4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • SL.1.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.1.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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