skip navigation
Left Navigation Links

 

Like Comparing Bison and Fish

Printable view

Summary

Students will describe how early American Indian cultures developed in North America. Students will describe how geographic characteristics impacted the development of American Indian cultures. Students will compare the experiences of the Plains Indians and the Clatsop Indians. Students will write a five-paragraph comparative essay.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • Students will describe how early American Indian cultures developed in North America.
  • Students will describe how geographic characteristics impacted the development of American Indian cultures.
  • Students will compare the experiences of the Plains Indians and the Clatsop Indians.
  • Students will write a five-paragraph comparative essay.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Technology

Grades

  • Fourth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Writing process
  • American bison (buffalo)
  • Culture
  • American Indians

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • Plains Indians
  • Clatsop Indians
  • Environment

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector
  • Copies of the worksheets attached to this lesson plan (see "Preparations")
  • 1 copy of the Westward Journy Nickel Series™ Resource Guide (available at www.usmint.gov/kids)
  • 1 copy of a text that provides basic information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition (see "Preparations")
  • Chart paper
  • Blank overhead transparencies
  • Web sites that include basic information about the Lakota Sioux (Plains) and Clatsop (Northwest) Indians (see "Preparations")
  • Copies of texts that provide basic historical information about the Plains and the Clatsop Indians (see "Preparations")
  • Computer lab with Internet access
  • Writing journals

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following worksheets attached to this lesson plan:
    • "Clatsop Research Guide" (1 per student in group)
    • "Plains Indians Research Guide" (1 per student in group)
    • "Five-Paragraph Essay Organization Sheet" (1 per student)
    • "Venn Diagram" (1 per student)
    • "Writing Rubric Score Sheet" (1 per student)
  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • "Clatsop Research Guide"
    • "Plains Indians Research Guide"
    • "Venn Diagram"
    • "Louisiana Territory Map" (from the Resource Guide)
    • "American Indian Tribes Overlay" (from the Resource Guide)
    • "American Bison Nickel Reverse" page (from the Resource Guide)
    • "2005 Nickels Obverse" page (from the Resource Guide)
    • "Ocean in View Nickel Reverse" page (from the Resource Guide)
  • Locate a text that provides basic historical information about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, such as:
    • Lewis and Clark: Explorers of the American West by Steven Kroll.
    • How We Crossed the West: the Adventures of Lewis & Clark by Rosalyn Schanzer.
    • A Picture Book of Lewis and Clark by David A. Adler.
    • Lewis and Clark: from Ocean to Ocean by Harold Faber.
  • Locate copies of texts that provide basic historical information about the Plains Indians and Clatsop (Northwest) Indians, such as:
    • Plains Indians by Christopher Davis
    • How the Plains Indians Lived by George S. Fichter
    • The Sioux by Alice Osinski
    • The Sioux Indians: Hunters and Warriors of the Plains by Sonia Bleeker
    • On the trail of Sacagawea by Peter Lourie.
    • Indian Tribes of America by Marion E. Gridley
    • Encyclopedia of North American Indian Tribes by Bill Yenne.
    • Indians of the Pacific Northwest: A History (Civilization of the American Indian Series) by Robert H. Ruby
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab.
  • Bookmark Internet sites that provide basic information about the Plains and Clatsop Indians, such as:

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/180.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Introduce a text on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Ask the students what they already know about Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. List responses on chart paper. As a class, preview the text and illustrations to generate predictions about what will occur in the text.
  2. Read the text aloud to the class. Attend to unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts.
  3. Have the students retrieve their writing journals. Ask the students to recall the major events that occurred in the text by listing them in their journals. Lead a class discussion in which students share their journal entries. Record the students’ responses on a long piece of chart paper to create a timeline.
  4. Display the "Lewis and Clark Route Overlay" overhead transparency. As a class, trace the journey of Lewis and Clark from start to finish.
  5. Place the "American Indian Tribes Overlay" on top of the "Lewis and Clark Route Overlay" transparency. Point out the locations of the Teton Lakota Sioux, Mandan, Cheyenne, and Crow tribes. Explain that these tribes are categorized as Plains Indians. Point out the location of the Clatsop Indians. Explain that the Clatsop are characterized as Pacific Northwest Indians.
  6. Display the "2005 Nickels Obverse" overhead transparency. Ask the students to examine this picture and tell you what they know about it. The students should be able to identify this image as the obverse (front) of a nickel and the person on it as President Thomas Jefferson. Tell the students that the obverse design for the 2005 nickels bears, for the first time in 67 years, a new likeness of America’s third president, Thomas Jefferson. The "Liberty" inscription on the coin is based upon Jefferson’s own handwriting.
  7. Explain that our country changed its nickels beginning in 2004 to tell the story of two men named Lewis and Clark, who led an expedition that explored our country’s Western lands 200 years ago.
  8. Display the 2005 "American Bison Nickel Reverse" overhead transparency. Ask the students if they can identify the animal on the coin. Guide the students to identify the animal as a bison. Explain to the students that the American bison is not really a buffalo— no species of buffalo is native to North America. But people have used the term "buffalo" to describe the American bison since before Lewis and Clark’s time, so the terms are virtually interchangeable in common usage Relate the image back to the part of the text where Lewis and Clark are on the Great Plains. Ask students to hypothesize why the bison is on the nickel. Guide student to conclude that, at the time of the expedition, millions of bison roamed the Plains, and that the members of the Expedition used the bison to meet basic survival needs such as food, clothing, and shelter.
  9. Display the 2005 "Ocean in View Nickel Reverse" overhead transparency. Ask the students to identify the location illustrated on the coin. Lead the students to conclude that this is an image of the Pacific Ocean. Refer to the part in the text where Lewis and Clark first see the ocean. Ask the students to hypothesize why the Pacific Ocean is on the nickel. Guide the students to conclude that, when Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean, they had reached an important milestone in their journey. Discuss how they may have felt having reached this destination.
  10. Display the "Lewis and Clark Route Overlay." Ask the students where along the route Lewis and Clark encountered bison. Guide the students to conclude that Lewis and Clark encountered the bison on the Great Plains. Note the location of the Great Plains on the map. Ask student where along the route Lewis and Clark saw the Pacific Ocean. Guide students to conclude that Lewis and Clark encountered the Pacific Ocean at the westernmost point of their journey. Note this location on the map.
  11. Display the "American Indian Tribes Overlay" on top of the "Louis and Clark Route Overlay." Ask the students to create a T-chart in their writing journals. Have them label the left column "Plains Indians" and the right column "Clatsop Indians."
  12. Ask the students what types of animals and plants they would expect to find on the Plains. Ask them to think about the weather they would expect on the Plains. Have the students describe how they think the American Indians would have lived in this environment in the "Plains Indians" column.
  13. Ask students what types of plants and animals they would expect to find along the Pacific Northwest coast. Ask them to think about the weather they would expect in the Pacific Northwest. Have the students list how they think the American Indians would have lived in this environment in the "Clatsop Indians" column.
  14. Have the students share their responses. Record the responses on chart paper.
  15. Collect their journals when they are finished.

Session 2

  1. Review the timeline, chart, and maps from the last session. Highlight the differences between the lifestyles of the Plains Indians and the Clatsop Indians from the chart. Tell the students that now that they have made some hypotheses about these tribes and their environments, they will conduct research to determine if the hypotheses are correct.
  2. Divide the students into two groups. Explain to the students that one group will research the Plains Indians (Teton Lakota Sioux, Mandan, Cheyenne, and Crow). The other group will research the Clatsop Indians, who lived in the Pacific Northwest.
  3. Distribute the "Clatsop Research Guide" to one group and the "Plains Indians Research Guide" to the other. Explain to the students that they will be using the bookmarked Web sites and some of the suggested books to find information to fill in the research guides. Take the students to the computer lab.
  4. Direct the students to begin their research. If necessary, guide the students to see the relationship between each tribe’s environment and its way of life.

Session 3

  1. If necessary, give the students additional time to research.
  2. Display the "Venn Diagram" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Venn Diagram" worksheet to each student. Complete a class Venn Diagram comparing the lifestyles of the Plains Indians and the Clatsop Indians. Have a student in one group give a lifestyle fact. If students in the other group have the same lifestyle fact for their group, put it in the middle of the diagram. If not, then put it in the appropriate section of the diagram. Repeat the process with other students from each group. Students will fill in their Venn Diagram from the class Venn Diagram.
  3. For each of the lifestyle facts that differ, ask the students to think about the extent to which the environment affected that fact. If necessary, guide the students to see the relationship between the tribes’ environment and their way of life.
  4. Pair the students so that each student who completed a "Clatsop Research Guide" works with a student who completed a "Plains Indians Research Guide." Distribute a blank "Clatsop Research Guide" to each student who completed the "Plains Indians Research Guide" and a blank "Plains Indian Research Guide" to each student who completed a "Clatsop Research Guide."
  5. Have the student pairs discuss their research and complete the blank research guides.
  6. Display the "Clatsop Research Guide" overhead transparency. Using the students’ responses, create a model research guide. Display the "Plains Indians Research Guide." Using the students’ responses, create a model research guide.

Session 4

  1. Distribute one "Writing Rubric Score Sheet" and one "Five-Paragraph Essay Organization Sheet" to each student. Review the sheet and paragraph formation.
  2. Have the students fill in information from their research guides and the Venn Diagrams.
  3. Have students use the writing process to complete the essay.  

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Have the students research in pairs.
  • Have students match pictures of the two tribes with the appropriate area.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students create triaramas based on their research for a museum walk.
  • Have students do a news show and interview each other on their research.

Technology Extensions

Have students do a news show and interview each other on their research. Videotape the news shows using a video camera and video production software.

  • Use writing journals to assess understanding during the first session.
  • Use the "Writing Rubric" to evaluate the students’ attainment of the lesson objectives.
  • Use the "Research Guides" worksheets to evaluate the students’ research.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.4.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.4.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4.)
  • W.4.6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.4.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • RI.4.6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.4.7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • RI.4.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • RI.4.9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.4.2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.4.3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.4 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.4.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.4.5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • SL.4.6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: History and Nature of Science
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Science as a human endeavor

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Research and Information Fluency
Cluster: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks
  • Process data and report results

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to explain how the scarcity of productive resources (human, capital, technological, and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed
  • help learners analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system
  • help learners compare the costs and benefits to society of allocating goods and services through private and public means
  • assist learners in understanding the relationships among the various economic institutions that comprise economic systems such as households, businesses, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations
  • guide learner analysis of the role of specialization and exchange in economic processes
  • provide opportunities for learners to assess how values and beliefs influence private and public economic decisions in different societies
  • have learners compare basic economic systems according to how they deal with demand, supply, prices, the role of government, banks, labor and labor unions, savings and investments, and capital
  • challenge learners to apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluating historical and contemporary social developments and issues
  • enable learners to distinguish between domestic and global economic systems, and explain how the two interact
  • guide learners in the application of economic concepts and principles in the analysis of public issues such as the allocation of health care or the consumption of energy, and in devising economic plans for accomplishing socially desirable outcomes related to such issues
  • help learners critically examine the values and assumptions underlying the theories and models of economics
  • help learners to distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and the economy

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features