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Seeing is Believing

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Summary

Students will describe the stories of important American heroes and their contributions to our society, with emphasis on Thomas Jefferson, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark. Students will analyze the meaning of historical sources (text, charts, pictures, and music) from various historical perspectives. Students will develop an analysis of two historical contexts and present their analysis using the Internet and presentation software applications.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

  • Students will describe the stories of important American heroes and their contributions to our society, with emphasis on Thomas Jefferson, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark.
  • Students will analyze the meaning of historical sources (text, charts, pictures, and music) from various historical perspectives.
  • Students will develop an analysis of two historical contexts and present their analysis using the Internet and presentation software applications.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Technology

Grades

  • Seventh grade
  • Eighth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Louisiana Purchase
  • Internet research skills
  • Presentation software skills
  • Citation styles

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (front)
  • Reverse (back)
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery
  • Monticello
  • Historical context

Materials

  • Copies of the worksheets attached to this lesson plan (see "Preparations")
  • 1 copy of the 2006 Westward Journey Nickel Series™ Lesson Plans Resource Guide (available at www.usmint.gov/kids)
  • 1 overhead projector
  • Blank overhead transparencies
  • Copies of text that provide in-depth information about Monticello (see "Preparations")
  • A reserved computer lab with Internet access, presentation software, and an LCD projector
  • Web sites that include basic information about Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Lewis and Clark, and current events

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheet
    • "Read All About It!" worksheet
    • "Scavenger Hunt" worksheet
    • "Exhibit Rubric"
  • Make overhead transparencies of the following:
    • "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheet (from the Resource Guide)
    • "Journey of Lewis and Clark" map (from the Resource Guide)
    • "Read All About It!" worksheet
    • "Scavenger Hunt" worksheet
    • "Exhibit Rubric"
  • Gather texts that contain in-depth information about Monticello, such as
    • Worlds of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello by Susan R. Stein
    • Jefferson’s Monticello by William Howard Adams
    • Jefferson and Monticello, the Biography of a Builder by Jack McLaughlin
    • Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello by William L. Beiswanger
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for four sessions.
  • Bookmark Web sites that include basic information about Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Lewis and Clark, and current events.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/194.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display the "Westward Journey Nickel Series" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Westward Journey Nickel Series™" worksheet to each student.
  2. Explain to the students that the United States Mint is producing the Westward Journey Nickel Series in honor of the bicentennial anniversary of Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery. Tell the students that the "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheet contains images of the nickels from this series.
  3. Ask the students to begin the worksheet by recording what they see in each nickel’s design that relates to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Ask the students to hypothesize why each image was selected and its relationship to the Expedition. If desired, allow the students to use their textbooks. Ask the students to record their answers on their "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheets.
  4. Allow the students five to ten minutes to complete the worksheets individually. Pair up the students and allow them to collaborate for an additional five to ten minutes.
  5. Lead a class discussion regarding the students’ answers on their completed "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheets. Use the students’ responses to complete a model "Westward Journey Nickel Series" worksheet on the overhead transparency. Make sure that the students have a basic understanding of the Expedition.
  6. Display the "Journey of Lewis and Clark" overhead transparency. Make sure that the students understand that most Americans had no idea what existed west of the Mississippi River, that some even argued that the territory was mostly a useless dessert, and that they thought that Jefferson had made a bad deal! Explain that one of the reasons that Jefferson planned and authorized the Expedition was so that the nation would have a greater under-standing of the usefulness of the additional territory. He hoped that the items sent back by Lewis and Clark would help people understand its value. Explain that Jefferson directed Lewis and Clark to learn about the people, flora, and fauna that inhabited the west.
  7. Ask the students how they think Lewis and Clark were able to share their knowledge with Jefferson and people in the East. Record the students’ responses on the overhead projector. Make sure that the students understand that Lewis and Clark adopted many strategies to meet this objective, including:Explain to the students that museums did not exist in early 19th century America as they do today but that it was customary for the well-off to collect artifacts of interest and display them for their guests. Tell the students that Jefferson had many visitors at Monticello, and he wanted his peers to have the opportunity to see items that Lewis and Clark had collected.
    • Collecting and sending samples of plants and animals to Jefferson
    • Recording their observations in journals
    • Composing maps
    • Forming relationships with American Indian tribes in order to learn more about the territory and to trade with them for goods and artifacts
    • Inviting American Indian chiefs to travel to Washington, DC, to meet Jefferson
  8. Distribute the "Read All About It!" worksheet. Remind the students that newspapers were the main way to learn about current events at the time. Have the students write a 150-word newspaper article as if written before the journey began explaining the Expedition to people in the East. Tell the students to include a picture with a caption and the essentials: who, what, where, when, how, and why. Have the students begin the assignment in class and complete it for homework.
  9. Inform the students that the following four class sessions will be held in the computer lab.

Session 2

  1. Collect the homework. Distribute one "Scavenger Hunt" worksheet to each student. Inform the students that you want them to discover information about the items that Lewis and Clark collected on the trail and why the items turned out to be so important. Explain to the students that they are to complete the scavenger hunt using Internet sites that you have bookmarked and the Monticello reference books that you have gathered. Tell the students that they have this class period to complete the scavenger hunt and should finish any unanswered questions for homework. 2. Circulate among the students and provide any necessary support. 3. Five minutes before the end of class, remind the students to complete the scavenger hunt for homework. Session 3 1. You might want to begin this session in your classroom so you can easily use resources like the overhead projector. Write the following quote on the blackboard: "In America, therefore, animated Nature is weaker, less active, and more circumscribed in the variety of her productions; for we per-ceive, from the enumeration of the American animals, that the numbers of species is not only fewer, but that, in general, all the animals are much smaller than those of the Old Continent. No American animal can be compared with the elephant, the rhinoc-eros, the hippopotamus, the dromedary, the camelopard [giraffe], the buffalo, the lion, the tiger, &c." Histoire Naturelle document translation available on the Web, courtesy of Fran Moran, Ph.D., translated by William Smellie (8 volumes, 1781).
  2. Ask the students to retrieve their completed "Scavenger Hunt" worksheets. Review the quote with the students. Ask the students to write a sentence or two paraphrasing the quote. Allow the students several minutes to complete the task. Lead a class discussion regarding the quote’s interpretation. Ask the students to hypothesize the meaning of the word "circumscribed," which means narrowed or limited. Discuss the roots "circum," meaning "around" or "about," and "scribe," meaning "to write." Ask the students to hypothesize the meaning of the word "enumeration," which is a numbered list. Discuss its relationship to the word "numeral."
  3. Explain to the students that the quote was written by a French naturalist, the Comte de Buffon (booFONE), who was one of the late 18th century’s leading scientists, althoughhe had unconventional views about people around the world. Ask the students what they think that the quote means. Guide the students to conclude that the scientist was trying to say that nature and natural resources in America (the New World) were not as good as in the Europe, Asia, and Africa (the Old World). Tell the students that de Buffon also wrote that people who were from the New World were not as smart or strong as people from the Old World. Explain to the students that, while this seems ridiculous today, many Europeans in Jefferson’s time regarded this as "cutting edge" science.
  4. Explain the following to the students: – When Thomas Jefferson was the ambassador to France, he met with de Buffon and tried to dissuade him from his argument. He even went so far as to have a moose carcass shipped from America to France and reassembled so that the scientist could see that large animals existed in the New World.
    • Jefferson wrote his own book (the only book he ever wrote), Notes on the State of Virginia, in which he documented the plants, animals, climate, and geography of Virginia. One of the purposes for writing this book was to refute de Buffon’s arguments.
    • Jefferson supported the search for the mastodon. Giant fossils had been found in New York and in Ohio. These fossils were thought to have belonged to a giant carnivore, which the American scientists called the "mammoth." In letters, Jefferson reported the findings to those in Europe and even conjectured that the large animal may still exist in the West.
  5. Ask the students how Jefferson’s debate with the Comte de Buffon may have influenced his support for the Expedition. Guide the students to the conclusion that Jefferson believed that the plant and animal specimens and the American Indian objects collected by Lewis and Clark would prove de Buffon incorrect. Ask the students why Jefferson’s placement of artifacts (antlers, American Indian crafts) from the "New World" next to artifacts from the Old World (paintings, sculptures) was significant. Guide the students to the conclusion that Jefferson wanted to show his visitors at Monticello that, despite their differences, American plants, animals, and arts were equal to those of Europe. Jefferson believed that his Indian Hall put America in context with the rest of the world’s history. Jefferson’s extensive knowledge of both the "Old" and the "New" world gave him the ability to make this argument.
  6. Display the "Exhibit Rubric" overhead transparency. Distribute one "Exhibit Rubric" to each student. Tell the students that they will create their own exhibit that will place Jefferson’s time within the context of modern America. Tell the students that they will create their exhibit in the computer lab using presentation software. Review the "Exhibit Rubric" with the students. Tell the students that the goal of the assignment is for them to decide on a theme or message for their exhibit and to choose artifacts that communicate the theme. Potential themes could include "Diversity," "Changing Views of the Environment," "Technological Progress," or "In the News."
  7. In the computer lab, review basic presentation software functions such as creating and saving a new file, creating a new slide, entering and formatting text on a slide, adding notes, and adding sound and picture files to the presentation. Review guidelines for citing Internet sources and downloading images.
  8. Tell the students that they will have the rest of this class period and the following one and a half class periods to complete their projects.
  9. Circulate among the students and provide support.
  10. Five minutes before the end of class, remind the students to save their work.

Session 4

  1. Review briefly the "Exhibit Rubric" with the students and answer any questions.
  2. Remind the students of the project’s due date.
  3. Circulate among the students and provide support.
  4. Five minutes before the end of class, remind the students that they will only have half of the next class session to complete their exhibit. Suggest that the students work on their project for homework if possible.

Session 5

  1. Review briefly the "Exhibit Rubric" with the students and answer any questions. Tell the students that they have the first half of the class to complete their presentations. The last half will be set aside for those students who would like to share their presentations.
  2. Circulate among the students and provide support.
  3. Five minutes before the end of the first half of class, tell the students to save their work for the final time. Allow students to share their presentations with the class.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Have the students work in pairs.
  • Provide additional time to complete the assignments.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • After completing this project, have students pick one element to research more extensively.
  • Have students research the Enlightenment and discuss the ways in which this philosophy is reflected in Monticello.
  • Have the students view modern exhibits online. Ask the students to hypothesize the theme or message of the exhibit. Have students support their hypotheses.
  • Use the student’s responses on the "Westward Journey Nickel Series," "Read All About It!" and "Scavenger Hunt" worksheets to assess the students’ daily progress.
  • Evaluate the student’s presentation against the rubric to assess the overall achievement of the lesson objectives.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.7.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.7.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • W.7.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.7.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.7.5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
  • SL.7.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.8 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.8.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • SL.8.5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
  • SL.8.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.7.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.7.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 7.)
  • W.7.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.7 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.7.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  • W.7.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.7.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
    • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.8.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.8.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8.)
  • W.8.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • W.8.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.8.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.8 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.8.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • W.8.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
    • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.7 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.7.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
  • SL.7.2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • SL.7.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.8 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.8.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
    • Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
  • SL.8.2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
  • SL.8.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.7 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.7.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
    • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
    • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
  • L.7.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.8 Language
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
    • Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
  • L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
  • RI.7.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
  • RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
  • RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.7 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • RI.8.5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
  • RI.8.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.8.7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
  • RI.8.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
  • RI.8.9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.8 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 7
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.8.3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Using Technological Information
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Global Connections
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to explain how interactions among language, art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding
  • help learners to explain conditions and motivations that contribute to conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, and nations
  • provide opportunities for learners to analyze and evaluate the effects of changing technologies on the global community
  • challenge learners to analyze the causes, consequences, and possible solutions to persistent, contemporary, and emerging global issues, such as health care, security, resource allocation, economic development, and environmental quality
  • guide learner analysis of the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests in such matters as territorial disputes, economic development, nuclear and other weapons deployment, use of natural resources, and human rights concerns
  • have learners analyze or formulate policy statements that demonstrate an understanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflicts related to universal human rights
  • help learners to describe and evaluate the role of international and multinational organizations in the global arena
  • have learners illustrate how individual behaviors and decisions connect with global systems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Technology Operations and Concepts
Cluster: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Understand and use technology systems
  • Select and use applications effectively and productively
  • Troubleshoot systems and applications
  • Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Print/Non-print Texts
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features