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The Change Of A River

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Summary

Students will describe the changes that have affected the Missouri River over the past 200 years by identifying transformations in this area’s atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel

Coin Program(s)

  • Westward Journey Nickel Series

Objectives

Students will describe the changes that have affected the Missouri River over the past 200 years by identifying transformations in this area’s atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies
  • Technology

Grades

  • Ninth grade
  • Tenth grade
  • Eleventh grade
  • Twelfth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The Corps of Discovery
  • Waterways
  • Computer presentation program functionality

Terms and Concepts

  • Obverse (heads)
  • Reverse (tails)
  • Reservoir
  • Lewis and Clark
  • Corps of Discovery
  • Sandbar
  • Keelboat
  • Peace medal
  • Ecosystem
  • Atmosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Lithosphere
  • Pro
  • Con

Materials

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
    • Peace Medal Nickel reverse from the Resource Guide.
    • Keelboat Nickel reverse from the Resource Guide.
  • Locate copies of journal entries in which Lewis and Clark describe the river’s state in the early 1800s (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Make copies of each of the following:
    • “Changes in Our Environment” assignment sheet (1 per student).
    • “Individual Research Journal Rubric” (1 per student).
    • “Presentation Rubric” (1 per student).
    • “Atmosphere Team Guide” (1 per atmosphere team).
    • “Biosphere Team Guide” (1 per biosphere team).
    • “Hydrosphere Team Guide” (1 per hydrosphere team).
    • “Lithosphere Team Guide” (1 per lithosphere team).
  • Make one copy of “Research Teams” and cut it along the dotted lines.
  • Arrange to use the school computer lab for four class sessions.
  • Arrange to use the school library for three class sessions (optional).
  • Bookmark appropriate Internet sites.

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/195.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Display the overhead transparencies of the Peace Medal Nickel reverse and the Keelboat Nickel reverse. Direct the students to inspect the images on the transparencies. Ask the students what they know about these two images and what they represent.
  2. Explain that, starting in 2004 and continuing through 2005, our nation is changing its nickels to tell the story of the Louisiana Purchase and Lewis and Clark’s exploration of the American West 200 years ago. Inform students that these are the reverse designs that appear on the 2004 nickels.
  3. Ask students to recall some basic historical information about the Louisiana Purchase and the Corps of Discovery’s expedition. They should remember that Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the Corps of Discovery up the Missouri River in an effort to find a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean, which would eventually assist with the nation’s abilities to conduct trade. Along their journey, they developed relations with many groups of American Indians and conducted scientific studies of the animals, plants, land, and water in this region.
  4. Make connections between these missions and the new nickels by noting that the Corps of Discovery members rowed, poled, and pulled a keelboat like the one pictured on the Keelboat Nickel. Also explain that the explorers gave peace medals that had an image on them like the image on the Peace Medal Nickel reverse to the American Indians as a sign of good will.
  5. Conduct a Think-Pair-Share activity in which the students, first individually and then with a partner, brainstorm ideas about the important role that the Missouri River played in the journey of the Corps of Discovery. Once the students have discussed their ideas with their partners, conduct a class discussion in which these ideas are shared.
  6. Explain to the students that the Corps, including the captains, kept journals of their experiences during the trip. The journals were full of descriptions of the wild, winding, turbulent, unrestricted Missouri River. Provide students with a sample of one or two journal entries that describe the river’s state in the early 1800s.
  7. Explain that they are going to conduct their own exploration of the Missouri River and its role in modern society as a class. Distribute a “Changes in Our Environment” assignment sheet to each student. Direct a student to read it aloud to the class.
  8. Distribute one small notebook or journal to each student. Inform them that, during this investigation, each student must maintain a journal, which will be assessed at the end of the lesson.
  9. Distribute a copy of the “ Individual Research Journal Rubric” to each student. Review the rubric with the students and inform them that these are charts of what they have to accomplish in their individual research journals for various degrees of achievement (in other words, this is how they’ll be graded).
  10. Direct the students to take a moment at this time and write a journal entry in which they describe what they currently know about the state of the Missouri River in 1803. They should also hypothesize about what changes they believe may have occurred on the river since that time, and the possible causes for the changes.
  11. Re-read the “Changes in Our Environment” assignment sheet and introduce the students to the core of their “jigsaw” research project. Explain that the students will be divided into groups that will explore the impact of changes that have been made to the Missouri River.
  12. Direct the students to assemble themselves into four groups. Place the cut-outs from the “Research Teams” page into a hat and have a member of each group draw one team research assignment. This will inform the group of their duties for the first part of this project. Distribute the appropriate “Team Guide” to each group based on the team description they selected from the hat.
  13. Ask the students to share their earlier journal entries with their research team, noting in their journals their peers’ ideas as they are discussed. They should discuss what effects the changes they noted would have on their research area as well as on society.
  14. Tell the students to discuss within their research teams what they need to know about the river and their sphere of expertise for this project. These questions and issues will guide their research. They should list these in their journals.
  15. Direct the students to develop a plan for finding what they need to know. This plan should include an outline of individual investigative responsibilities. Each student must write their individual research plan (i.e. questions to answer and resources to use) in their journal.
  16. Direct the students to complete their individual research plans for homework if they did not finish them during this class session.

Session 2

  1. Explain that the students must now implement the independent research plans they describedin their journals. They should record their findings, sources, and any new questionsin their journals. Explain that they may use the Internet or library resources toinvestigate the Missouri River’s structure and ecosystem two hundred years ago throughthe eyes of the Corps of Discovery. They should investigate the river’s structure andecosystem today by reviewing current research and information on the Internet. If appropriate, guide your students to the Web sites suggested in the Materials section of this lesson plan.
  2. Accompany your students to either a school computer lab or the school library and allow them about fifteen minutes to begin their investigation. Observe what the students are researching. If necessary, step in with guiding questions such as the ones on the sphere team guides to keep students on the right investigatory path.
  3. When the majority of the students are finished with their initial investigation plan, ask them to reassemble in their research teams to discuss their findings. In their teams, the students should develop new questions based on the information the team gathered, and they should note these questions in their journals.
  4. Direct the students to adjust their individual research plans based on their group discussion. Any adjustments or new questions should be recorded in their research journal.
  5. Allow the students to research any new questions that have arisen.
  6. Repeat steps 4 through 6 as many times as necessary until students have at least touched on the learning issues listed in the sphere team guides.
  7. Now that students are “experts” on their area of research, direct them to assemble into new teams that contain representatives from each of the spheres. In these groups, the students should discuss their findings and begin to formulate their group’s presentation.
  8. Based on the group’s discussion, direct the students to independently write a journal entry in which they hypothesize about the future of the Missouri River. They should focus primarily on their sphere of expertise, but should also touch upon each of the other spheres.
  9. Once more, display the overhead transparencies of the Peace Medal Nickel reverse and the Keelboat Nickel reverse. Based on their research, for homework, require each student to design a new nickel reverse that commemorates the role of the Missouri River over the past 200 years. This drawing and an explanation of their design should be added to each student’s journal.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Allow the students to complete any individual research that may remain from the previous sessions.
  2. Direct the students to reassemble into their groups from the previous session.
  3. Distribute a copy of the “Presentation Rubric” to each student. Review the rubric with the students and explain that the presentations should include information on the river’s past and present structure and ecosystem with emphasis on how changes in the structure over the past 200 years have affected the land, air, water, and living things in the Missouri River ecosystem. Through the inclusion of scientific facts, the presentations should explain the positive and negative effects of these changes on society. Explain that, in groups, each individual will take on a research role. Explain, too, that all of the research will be combined to form the group presentation.
  4. Direct the students to design and create their group presentations, which are to be 15 minutes in length. The students should develop a plan for the actual creation of this presentation, so that all students can participate. The students should also share and discuss their last journal entries and individual thoughts on the future of the Missouri River, as this will be incorporated into the group presentation.
  5. Distribute a piece of poster board or butcher paper to each group. Direct the students to share their individual nickel designs and combine ideas in order to develop a group nickel design. This design should be included in their presentation.
  6. Explain that the groups will share their presentations during the next session, so any incomplete work must be completed as homework.
  7. Ten minutes before the end of the session, have the students take a moment to write a journal entry describing how they feel about the changes that have taken place on the Missouri River over the past 200 years, based on the research they’ve conducted and their group discussions.

Session 5

  1. Direct each group to give their 15-minute presentations.
  2. After each presentation, allow five minutes for your questions as well as those from other students.
  3. Ten minutes before the end of the session, direct the students to write a journal entry describing how they feel about the changes that have taken place on the Missouri River over the past 200 years now that they’ve heard from the other groups. Has their view changed since their last journal entry? Why or why not?
  4. Collect the individual research journals.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow the students to work in pairs to conduct their initial sphere research.
  • Assign research team roles according to learning styles. For example, someone who excels at writing could be the research team recorder; someone who is artistic could design the group coin.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Direct the students to investigate and present research relating to local environmental changes.
  • Provide students with the opportunity to contact local, state, or federal policymakers regarding environmental issues.
  • Take anecdotal notes about the students’ ability to work as a team, to complete independent research, and to meet all the other project objectives.
  • During the presentations, note the students’ performance in each of the categories outlined in the “Presentation Rubric.” Assess their work accordingly.
  • Read the individual research journals and assess them using the “Individual Research Journal Rubric.”

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.9-10 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.9-10.7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
  • RI.9-10.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
  • RI.9-10.9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.9-10.1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • W.9-10.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.11-12.1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 
    • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons and evidence.
    • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values and possible biases.
    • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • W.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization and analysis of content. 
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables) and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the
    • information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • W.11-12.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. 
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events and/or characters.
    • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth or resolution).
    • Use precise words and phrases, telling details and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting and/or characters.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • RI.11-12.5. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
  • RI.11-12.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • RI.11-12.8. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
  • RI.11-12.9. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.11-12 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.11-12.1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • RI.11-12.2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • RI.11-12.3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.9-10 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
  • RI.9-10.5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
  • RI.9-10.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.9-10 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.9-10.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use parallel structure.
    • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  • L.9-10.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.9-10 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.9-10.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  • SL.9-10.2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
  • SL.9-10.3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.9-10 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.9-10.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
  • SL.9-10.5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • SL.9-10.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 
  • W.11-12.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. 
  • W.11-12.6. Use technology, including the internet, to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Production and Distribution of Writing
Standards:

  • W.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • W.9-10.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10.)
  • W.9-10.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.9-10 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • W.9-10.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • W.9-10.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.11-12 Language
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.11-12.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time and is sometimes contested.
    • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed.
  • L.11-12.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing. 
    • Observe hyphenation conventions.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.11-12 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.11-12.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 11-12 topics, texts and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines and establish individual roles as needed.
    • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence, ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue, clarify, verify or challenge ideas and conclusions and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, synthesize comments, claims and evidence made on all sides of an issue, resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  • SL.11-12.2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. 
  • SL.11-12.3. Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis and tone used.  

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.11-12 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.11-12.4. Present of information, findings and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and a range of formal and informal tasks. 
  • SL.11-12.5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning and evidence and to add interest. 
  • SL.11-12.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.11-12 Writing
Grade(s): Grades 9– 10
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including self-generated questions) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 
  • W.11-12.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. 
  • W.11-12.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection and research. 
    • Apply grade 11-12 reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics").
    • Apply grade 11-12 reading standards to literary non-fiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal US texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in US Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]".

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Using Technological Information
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Research and Information Fluency
Cluster: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks
  • Process data and report results

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Technology Operations and Concepts
Cluster: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Understand and use technology systems
  • Select and use applications effectively and productively
  • Troubleshoot systems and applications
  • Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies

Discipline: Technology
Domain: All Communication and Collaboration
Cluster: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media
  • Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using variety of media and formats
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems

Discipline: Science
Domain: 9-12 Content Standards
Cluster: Unifying Concepts and Processes
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Systems, order, and organization
  • Evidence, models, and explanation
  • Change, constancy, and measurement
  • Evolution and equilibrium
  • Form and function

Discipline: Science
Domain: 9-12 Content Standards
Cluster: Science as Inquiry
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Ability to do scientific inquiry
  • Understand scientific inquiry

Discipline: Science
Domain: 9-12 Content Standards
Cluster: Physical Science
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Structure of atoms
  • Structure and properties of matter
  • Chemical reactions
  • Motions and forces
  • Conservation of energy and increase in disorder
  • Interactions of energy and matter

Discipline: Science
Domain: 9-12 Content Standards
Cluster: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Personal and community health
  • Population growth
  • Natural resources
  • Environmental quality
  • Natural and human induced hazards
  • Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges

Discipline: Science
Domain: 9-12 Content Standards
Cluster: Science and Technology
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Technological design ability
  • Understand science and technology

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Power, Authority, and Governance
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to their families, their social groups, their community, and their nation; help students to understand the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified
  • provide opportunities for learners to examine issues involving the rights, roles, and status of individuals in relation to the general welfare
  • enable learners to describe the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security
  • have learners explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations
  • help learners to analyze and explain governmental mechanisms to meet the needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security
  • have learners identify and describe the basic features of the American political system, and identify representative leaders from various levels and branches of government
  • challenge learners to apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, democratic values, and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems guide learners to explain and evaluate how governments attempt to achieve their stated ideals at home and abroad

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Print/Non-print Texts
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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