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Crater Creation

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Summary

Students will distinguish between fiction and non-fiction information. They will learn to identify the beginning, middle, and end of a story.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will distinguish between fiction and non-fiction information.
  • They will learn to identify the beginning, middle, and end of a story.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Science
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art

Grades

  • Kindergarten
  • First grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 20-30 minutes
Total Length: 46-90 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Land and water
  • Natural occurrences (volcanoes)
  • Story comprehension

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)
  • Legend
  • Volcano
  • Natural occurrences (i.e., volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes)
  • Beginning, middle, and ending

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • “Oregon Quarter Reverse” page
  • Overhead transparency markers
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • “Oregon Quarter Reverse” page
  • Blue, green, and brown crayons and/or colored pencils
  • Chart paper/markers
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate legend about the creation of Crater Lake, such as:
    • Coyote in Love by Mindy Dwyer
    • Legends of Landforms: Native American Lore and the Geology of the Land by Carole Garbury Vogel
  • Variations on a Klamath Indian legend such as those available at:
  • 1 large photograph or picture of a volcano
  • “Story Selections” worksheet
  • String
  • Scissors
  • Single hole punch

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • “Oregon Quarter Reverse” page (1 per student).
    • “Story Selections” worksheet (1 per student).
  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the “Oregon Quarter Reverse” page.
  • Locate a text that relates to the creation of Crater Lake (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/218.pdf.

Sessions 1 and 2

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Oregon quarter reverse, mentioning that the lake must be special to be on a quarter. Locate Oregon on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. Distribute a copy of the “Oregon Quarter Reverse” page to each student.
  3. Using the overhead transparency, examine the design on this coin’s reverse with the students. Read the coin inscriptions to the class. Have the students identify the images in this coin design, including the water, the trees and the land. Then color the water blue, the trees green, and the land brown on the overhead copy of the coin design.
  4. Ask the students why they think this lake might be important to Oregon. Accept all responses.
  5. Ask the students how they think this lake was formed. Explain that many people had ideas about how the lake was originally formed. Tell students that, long ago, people would often make up stories to explain things that they didn’t understand. They would tell these stories to explain things that occurred in nature like big storms and, in this case, volcanoes. Some of these stories are called “legends.” A legend is a story handed down from earlier times. The story can‘t be proven, but it’s sometimes based on historical events.
  6. Divide a piece of chart paper into three even columns. Label the first column “Beginning,” the second column “Middle,” and the third column “Ending.”
  7. Introduce students to the selected text, a legend, about how Crater Lake was formed. Since the students will be identifying the beginning, middle, and ending of the story, have the students only preview the text and illustrations in the beginning section. Ask them to generate some predictions about what is occurring during this part of the story.
  8. Read the beginning of the story. During the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary. As you finish this section, explain to the students that this is the beginning of the story. Ask the students what they’ve heard so far. Students should list characters and some beginning information about the story’s plot. Check this information against the initial student predictions and, using markers, add this information to the “Beginning” column of the chart.
  9. Ask the students to predict what may happen in the next part of the story. After students have made their initial predictions, preview the text and illustrations from the middle section of the story.
  10. Read the middle of the story aloud to the group. Again, during the reading, attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary. As you finish this section, explain to the students that this is the middle of the story. Ask the students what new information they’ve learned. Students should discuss changes in the story’s plot. Check this information against the student  predictions and, using markers, add this information to the “Middle” column of the chart.
  11. Repeat steps 9 and 10 for the end of the story. Add all new information to the “Ending” column of the chart.
  12. As a class, review the beginning, middle, and ending of the story using the chart they’ve just created.

Session 3

  1. Revisit the image of the Oregon quarter and ask the students to recall what they discussed relating to the coin’s design.
  2. Revisit the chart from the previous day and talk about the legend that they read about the creation of Crater Lake. Remind the students about the purpose of legends as ways of explaining the unknown.
  3. Show the students a photograph or draw a picture of a volcano, and ask students to identify this image. As they examine the image, ask the students to describe their current knowledge of volcanoes. Record all responses on a new piece of chart paper.
  4. Ask the students what they think volcanoes may have to do with this lake. Accept all student responses. Tell the students that, many years after the legends were created, scientists studied how the lake might have been formed.
  5. Divide a piece of chart paper into three even columns. Label the first column “First,” the second column “Next,and the third column “Last.”
  6. Tell the students that you’re going to read an explanation of how Crater Lake was really formed. Explain that, after you read the text once, the students will identify what happened first, next, and last.
  7. Read the students the following information about the formation of Crater Lake. As you read, draw attention to the meanings of words such as “erupt,” “lava,” and “collapse.” Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States, but a very long time ago, a volcano stood in Oregon where this lake now exists. The rocks deep in the ground got very hot and pushed through the ground in an eruption. When the volcano erupted, the explosion was so great that the mountain collapsed! Once the eruption was over and the hot rocks (or lava) cooled off, the mountain looked like a huge deep bowl! Over the years, this bowl began to fill with rain and melting snow.
  8. Distribute one “Story Sections” worksheet and a pair of scissors to each student. Explain to the students that you will be reading the selection again. Direct the students to cut out the pictures and sequence them on their desks as you read aloud.
  9. As a class, review what the students have listed on their charts and, as a group, clarify any inconsistencies.
  10. Redistribute the Oregon quarter reverse images from the previous session and direct the students to cut around their quarter outlines as well.
  11. Punch a hole in the top of each circle. Using these circles, assemble mobiles hanging the “First,” “Next,” and “Last” circles in order from top to bottom and then the coin outline just below the last circle. Display these mobiles in the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

Record on tape the informational paragraph about Crater Lake and have the tape available in a center so the students can repeat the sequencing activity.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Share additional legends that were created to explain natural events.
  • Direct students to develop their own legend that explains how Crater Lake could have been formed. This legend should include a beginning, middle, and ending.
  • Examine a natural formation that all of the students are familiar with. As a class or independently, direct the students to create a legend about the event that caused this formation.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.1.4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • RL.1.5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • RL.1.6. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.1 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.1.7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
  • RL.1.8. Not applicable to literature.
  • RL.1.9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.K.4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • RL.K.5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
  • RL.K.6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.K.7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).  
  • RL.K.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.K.9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.K Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.K.2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
  • RL.K.3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.K Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.K.1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
  • SL.K.2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
  • SL.K.3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
  • SL.K.4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  • SL.K.6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.1 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 1
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.1.4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • SL.1.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.1.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Earth and Space Science
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Properties of Earth materials
  • Objects in the sky
  • Changes in earth and sky

Discipline: Science
Domain: K-4 Content Standards
Cluster: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Personal health
  • Characteristics and changes in populations
  • Types of resources
  • Changes in environments
  • Science and technology in local challenges

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Science, Technology, and Society
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • enable learners to identify, describe, and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings
  • provide opportunities for learners to make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions
  • have learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs, and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors
  • prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies
  • help learners to identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, technologies, and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures
  • encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology-society issues

Discipline: Visual Arts and Music
Domain: K-4 Visual Arts
Cluster: Standard 6: Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students understand and use similarities and differences between characteristics of the visual arts and other arts disciplines
  • Students identify connections between the visual arts and other disciplines in the curriculum

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Print/Non-print Texts
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–4
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features