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Kansas Clues

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Summary

Students will be able to extract key information from and analyze a selected non-fiction text. Students will describe the relationship between the bison (or American buffalo) and American Indians.

Coin Type(s)

  • Nickel
  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will be able to extract key information from and analyze a selected non-fiction text.
  • Students will describe the relationship between the bison (or American buffalo) and American Indians.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art
  • Drama

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 121-150 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Pairs
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of acrostics and American Indians.

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)
  • Freeze Frames
  • Acrostic
  • American Indians
  • Bison (American buffalo)
  • Kansas

Materials

Preparations

  • Make copies of the United States Mint H.I.P. Pocket Change™ June 2001 Coin of the Month page (1 per student).
  • Make an overhead transparency of each of the following:
  • Locate several pictures of bison (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Locate an age-appropriate text relating to bison and American Indians (see examples under “Materials”).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/273.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Write the following question on the board: “Why are bison important in the United States?”
  2. Explain to the students that they will become detectives today, trying to find clues to help answer this question.
  3. Have the students brainstorm what they know about bison. Show several pictures of bison. Lead a class discussion on the difference between a buffalo and a bison. Include the idea that buffalo are the cousin to the bison, but only the bison are found in the United States. Explain that bison are often referred to as American buffalo.
  4. Explain to the students that you found two American coins with bison on them and that you suspect they will provide some hints as to why bison are important in the United States.  Display an overhead transparency of the Kansas quarter reverse.
  5. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Locate Kansas on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  6. Ask the students to describe what they see on this coin. List student responses on a piece of chart paper titled “Clues.” The students should include in their responses that images of a bison and a sunflower appear on the coin as well as the word “Kansas,” the year 2005, etc.
  7. Explain that the new quarters are designed to describe the history and culture of each state. Have the students consider what this coin design says about Kansas. Add student responses to the “Clues” chart paper.
  8. Distribute a copy of the June 2001 Coin of the Month page and a highlighter to each student. Identify the coin pictured on the page as the Buffalo Nickel. Explain that, even though the coin is called the Buffalo Nickel, it’s really a bison depicted in the coin design. Explain to the students that this coin is one they would rarely find in their pockets today, but it was minted from 1913 to 1938.
  9. Display an overhead transparency of the June 2001 Coin of the Month page. Have students take turns reading the page aloud. While one student reads, the others should highlight on their copies any important information. The students should specifically look for information that provides a clue as to why bison (or buffalo as they are called on this page) are important to America.
  10. Have student volunteers identify the information they highlighted. Underline this information on the overhead transparency. The students should identify that the American Indians hunted bison and that the settlers were encroaching upon that hunting land.
  11. Add student responses to the “Clues” chart paper.
  12. Explain to the students that they will be further exploring the relationship between American Indians and the bison in the following session.

Sessions 2 and 3

  1. Review the “Clues” chart paper from the previous session. Have the students discuss why bison may have been important to American Indians. List new ideas on this chart paper.
  2. Explain to the students that they will be learning more about the relationship between bison and the American Indians.
  3. Introduce the selected text. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what might be occurring at different points in the book.
  4. Read the selected text aloud.
  5. As a class, have the students brainstorm how the bison were important to the American Indians. List these ideas on the board.
  6. Explain to the students that, in small groups, they will be creating freeze frames based upon one of the ideas listed on the board. Explain to the students that a freeze frame is a human snapshot of a moment in time. The students will arrange themselves into a position and freeze. The scene that they create should depict some aspect of the relationship between American Indians and bison.
  7. Model this process for students by selecting one of the ideas on the board and portraying it (with student volunteers, if necessary) in a frozen pose.
  8. Allow an appropriate amount of time for the students to form small groups, select the topic of their freeze frames, and practice them.
  9. Invite the groups to perform their freeze frames for the class. Students in the audience will try to guess what the freeze frame is depicting (for example, students might portray the American Indians hunting the bison, using the bison hides for clothing, etc.).
  10. Direct students’ attention back to the “Clues” chart paper. Ask the students if they can now explain why bison are on the Kansas quarter. Student responses should include that bison were very important to American Indians and that bison and many tribes of American Indians were found in Kansas.
  11. Point out the question that was written on the board at the beginning of Session 1. Distribute an index card to each student and direct the students to answer the question. Students responses should include that the bison is important to the United States because of its relationship with American Indians in United States history.

Session 4

  1. Review the “Clues” chart paper from the previous session. Review the discussion about the relationship between American Indians and bison in United States history.
  2. Explain to the students that they will be creating an acrostic based on the word “bison” that will explain why bison are important in the United States.
  3. Explain, if necessary, that an acrostic is made by using each letter in a word as the first letter of other words or phrases.
  4. To model this process, write the word “school” vertically on the board. Have the students generate a word or phrase starting with the letter “s” that describes some aspect of school.  Write this word horizontally starting with the letter “s” in the word “school.”
  5. Continue until the students have generated words or phrases for all of the letters in the word “school.”
  6. Have the students brainstorm the words or phrases they will use for their “bison” acrostics on a piece of lined paper. Remind the students that they can use the information on the “Clues” chart for reference.
  7. Distribute a piece of construction paper and markers or crayons to each student. Direct the students to illustrate their acrostics once they are done writing it out.
  8. Allow an appropriate amount of time for the students to create and illustrate their acrostics.

Differentiated Learning Options

Instead of creating an acrostic, students can draw a picture portraying the importance of bison in the United States. Students can use inventive spelling to explain their picture in one or two sentences.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Have students analyze your state’s quarter, if available. Students can research the symbols depicted on the quarter reverse design and create an acrostic or pictograph for one of them, explaining the symbol’s importance to your state and/or the United States.
  • Instead of an acrostic, have students create a pictograph of the word “bison.” Explain, if necessary, that students create pictographs by transforming each letter of the word “bison” into a picture of something that represents their importance to the United States. For example, the letter “O” in the word “bison” could be drawn to resemble the outer ring of a village of American Indians.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.2. Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • RI.2.3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.2.7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • RI.2.8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • RI.2.9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.2.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • RI.2.6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.3.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • RI.3.5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • RI.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.3.7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • RI.3.8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • RI.3.9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RI.3.2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • RI.3.3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.2.7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • W.2.8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • W.2.9. begins in grade 4.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Knowledge to Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features