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A Trip Back in Time

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Summary

Students will analyze the experiences of pioneers in the 1800s, and will reflect on these experiences through artistic and written means.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

Students will analyze the experiences of pioneers in the 1800s, and will reflect on these experiences through artistic and written means.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art

Grades

  • Second grade
  • Third grade

Class Time

Sessions: Three
Session Length: 30-45 minutes
Total Length: 91-120 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The order in which states were admitted to the union
  • The Louisiana Purchase

Terms and Concepts

  • Pioneer
  • Corps of Discovery
  • Gateway to the West
  • Time capsule
  • Gateway Arch
  • Territory

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Missouri quarter reverse
  • 1 class map of the United States of America
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Louisiana quarter reverse (see page 22 of the 2002 50 State Quarters® Program lesson plans, grades 2 and 3, lesson 3: Mapping America)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Louisiana Purchase map (see page 19 of the 2002 50 State Quarters Program lesson plans, grades 2 and 3, lesson 3: Mapping America)
  • Copies of age-appropriate texts that describe pioneer and frontier life, such as:
    • Westward Ho!: The Story of the Pioneers by Lucille Recht Penner
    • Wagon Train by Sydelle A. Kramer
    • The Wagon Train (Life in the Old West) by Bobbie Kalman
    • Prairie Dog Pioneers by Jo and Josephine Harper
    • Westward Ho with Ollie Ox! by Melanie Richardson Dundy
    • Roughing It on the Oregon Trail (The Time-Traveling Twins) by Diane Stanley
    • Covered Wagons, Bumpy Trails by Verla Kay
    • Sunsets of the West by Tony Johnston
    • Dandelions by Eve Bunting
    • New Hope by Henri Sorensen
    • Buffalo Thunder by Patricia Wittmann
  • Copies of the Pioneer Pages worksheet
  • Lined writing paper
  • Copies of the Time Capsule worksheet
  • Scissors
  • Crayons and/or colored pencils

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Missouri and Louisiana quarter reverses.
  • Locate several texts that describe pioneer and frontier life (see examples under “Materials,” 1 different book for each group).
  • Make copies of the “Pioneer Pages” worksheet (1 per person).
  • Make copies of the “Time Capsule” worksheet (3 per group).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/285.pdf.

Before this lesson, it is suggested that teachers introduce students to the Louisiana Territory through the 2002 Louisiana quarter lesson plan that is part of this series.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Missouri quarter reverse. On a classroom map, have a pair of students locate Missouri. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. With the students, examine the design on this coin’s reverse. As a class, identify the objects on the coin’s reverse: the Gateway Arch that now stands in St. Louis, MO, and three men paddling down the river in a canoe. 
    Note: At this point, take the opportunity to explain that the Gateway Arch is a recent structure and it did not exist during this time of exploration. It is a symbol of the growth of our country.
  3. Examine the words “Corps of Discovery” and explain that this was a name used by the team of American explorers who left from St. Charles, Missouri, to travel westward and explore this new territory.
  4. Reference the Louisiana quarter and review the idea that the land purchased as a part of the Louisiana Purchase meant that there were new places within the United States for people to explore and where people could live.
  5. Using the classroom map, once again point out the location of Missouri. Drawing from previous knowledge, ask students to name some of the states that were part of the United States before Missouri (reference the 50 State Quarters Program and note that the states whose quarters were released before Missouri’s were already part of the union). Students should notice that all of these states lie on the eastern half of the United States.
  6. Write the word “gateway” for the students to see, and work with students to break this word into two easily readable words, “gate” and “way”. Ask students to look at those two words and try to figure out what a gateway might be.
  7. Once students determine that a gateway is a location that serves as a means of access, introduce the idea that Missouri is known as the “Gateway to the West.” Ask students what they think this means. Missouri is known as the Gateway to the West because the first explorers who explored the west (the Corps of Discovery) left from Missouri, and numerous pioneers left from Missouri to travel westward to explore and settle this new territory.
  8. Begin a “jigsaw” activity, where students will explore pioneer life, by splitting students evenly into small reading groups.
  9. Distribute a “Pioneer Pages” worksheet to each student. Read the directions and the questions on this worksheet with the students.
  10. Distribute a different story about pioneer life to each reading group, and direct the students to take turns reading this book aloud.
  11. After reading the book, the group should discuss the answers to each question and each team member should complete their “Pioneer Pages” worksheet.

Session 2

  1. Depending on the time between sessions, allow students to review their notes from their “Pioneer Pages” worksheets in same-book pairs.
  2. Place each student in a second group that contains one member from each of the previous reading groups.
  3. In these new groups, the students will take turns sharing the stories that their groups read. They will take turns describing each story’s plot, and will also address the information that they collected while reading.
  4. After discussing all of the different stories, each of these second groups will write a paragraph that generally describes pioneer life.
  5. Distribute 3 “Time Capsule” worksheets to each group (More or fewer worksheets may be supplied depending on the size of each group).
  6. Direct the groups to imagine that they are going to create a time capsule of items that would have belonged to a pioneer in the 1830’s. These time capsules should incorporate items that represent common themes or materials discussed in each book. The groups should discuss and decide upon six items that they would include in this time capsule.
  7. Students will then cut the “Time Capsule” worksheets in half and distribute one half to each group member. A member of each group will be assigned an item to draw and label. Each member will also write a description about the ways in which that item represents the time period and lifestyle of pioneers.
  8. Students will take time to practice presenting their time capsules to the class.

Session 3

  1. Each group will present their paragraphs and time capsules to the class. Students from other groups should be encouraged to ask questions to the presenting group, once the presentation is complete.
  2. Display each group’s time capsule appropriately within the classroom.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Rather than drawing pictures of the items that they would include in their time capsules, students could bring in items from home, or cut out images from magazines of items to include in their time capsules.
  • With younger students, work as a whole class to determine appropriate items to place in the time capsule. After recording all suggestions on a class chart, each student could select one item from the list to draw and describe.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Ask students to imagine that a time capsule from present day somehow made its way back to the 1800’s. What would it include? How would pioneers react to these items? How would these things make their lives different and in what specific ways?
  • Invite students to either create or find an appropriate container in which to store their “Time Capsule” materials. When presenting their time capsules to the class, invite the students to discuss the time capsule’s container and why it is appropriate for this time period.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.2 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
  • RL.2.6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.2.7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • RL.2.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.2.9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.2 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RL.3.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • RL.3.5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.
  • RL.3.6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RL.3.7. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
  • RL.3.8. not applicable to literature.
  • RL.3.9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.3 Reading: Literature
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RL.3.1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • RL.3.2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.2 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves)
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage --> badge; boy --> boil).
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.3 Language
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
    • Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • Use commas in addresses.
    • Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • Form and use possessives.
    • Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.2 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • SL.2.4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • SL.2.6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: SL.3 Speaking and Listening
Grade(s): Grade 2
Cluster: Comprehension and Collaboration
Standards:

  • SL.3.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • SL.3.2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • SL.3.3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • SL.3.4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • SL.3.5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • SL.3.6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 here for specific expectations.) 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features