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Explosive Ideas!

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Summary

Students will describe and demonstrate ways the Earth’s layers interact to cause changes in the Earth’s surface. They will explore volcanoes and earthquakes and their effects. They will present an argument using research.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

  • Students will describe and demonstrate ways the Earth’s layers interact to cause changes in the Earth’s surface.
  • They will explore volcanoes and earthquakes and their effects.
  • They will present an argument using research.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Science
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Five
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups
  • Individual work

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • The Earth
  • Note taking
  • Research skills
  • Cooperative learning

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)
  • Crater
  • Legend
  • Structure
  • Earth
  • Core
  • Mantle
  • Crust
  • Tectonic plates
  • Earthquakes
  • Volcanoes
  • Hypothesis

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • Oregon Quarter Reverse page
  • 1 class map of the United States
  • Our Changing Earth pages
  • 1 copy of any variation on the Klamath Indian legend about Crater Lake, such as those available at:
  • 1 hard-boiled egg
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that relates to the structure of the planet Earth, such as:
    • Magic School Bus: Inside the Earth by Joanna Cole
    • What’s Under the Bed? by Mick Manning
    • How to Dig a Hole to the Other Side of the World by Faith McNulty
    • Structure: Exploring Earth’s Interior by Roy A. Gallant
  • 1 copy of information about Continental Drift (Pangaea), such as those available at:
    • pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/historical.html
    • pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html
    • cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/926/slrtecto.html
  • Tectonic Puzzle page
  • Scissors
  • Small plastic bags
  • Appropriate research materials and/or Web sites relating to volcanoes
  • Appropriate research materials and/or Web sites relating to earthquakes
  • Presentation Rubric
  • 2.5" x 4" pieces of drawing paper
  •  Colored pencils

Preparations

  • Make copies of the following:
    • Oregon Quarter Reverse page (1 per student)
    • Our Changing Earth pages (1 set per student)
    • Any variation on the Klamath Indian legend about Crater Lake (1 per student
    • Tectonic Puzzle sheet (1 per small group)
    • Presentation Rubric (1 per student)
  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Oregon Quarter Reverse page.
  • Cut and assemble the "Our Changing Earth" pages into booklets (1 per student).
  • Make 1 hard-boiled egg.
  • Reserve computer lab time for research (optional).
  • Locate an age-appropriate text that relates to the structure of the planet Earth (see examples under "Materials").
  • Cut the "Tectonic Puzzle" pages along the dotted lines and places all the pieces from each sheet in a small plastic bag before Session 3.
  • Gather appropriate research materials and/or Web sites relating to volcanoes (see examples under "Materials").
  • Gather appropriate research materials and/or Web sites relating to earthquakes volcanoes (see examples under "Materials").
  • Cut 2.5" x 4" pieces of drawing paper (about 10 per student).

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/326.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Oregon quarter reverse. Locate Oregon on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. With the students, examine the coin design. Have the students identify the images and writing in this design, including the words "Crater Lake," the water, the trees, and the land.
  3. Distribute an "Our Changing Earth" booklet to each student. Direct each student to write his or her name on the booklet’s cover.
  4. Discuss the meaning of the word "crater." If necessary, explain that a crater is an indentation in the Earth in the shape of a bowl. Instruct the students to write a definition for this word in their booklet.
  5. Give the students some examples and then direct them to independently brainstorm a few ways in which nature can change the Earth (such as erosion, earthquake, fire, etc.). The students should list these thoughts in their booklets and then share their ideas as a class. The students should add peer responses to their lists in their booklets.
  6. Guide the students to brainstorm ways in which a crater could be formed. Ask the students to hypothesize about how this lake came into existence. Direct each student to write his or her thoughts about the lake’s formation in his or her "Our Changing Earth" booklet.
  7. As a class, discuss the fact that our planet changes all the time; sometimes because of natural events and other times because of the actions of the Earth’s inhabitants.
  8. Explain that, the American Indians who lived in the area surrounding the lake created legends to explain how the lake was formed.
  9. Place the students in small groups and distribute a copy of the Klamath Indian legend about the creation of Crater Lake to each student.
  10. Direct the students to read this legend independently. Explain that the groups will discuss what type of natural phenomenon this story could possibly be describing. Direct the students to enter their thoughts in their booklets.
  11. Explain that, over the next few days, the students will be exploring the natural phenomena that caused the creation of this lake.

Session 2

  1. Revisit the image of the Oregon quarter and ask the students to recall what they discussed relating to the coin’s design. The students should recall that the coin features a lake that was created by a natural change in the Earth. Explain that, today, the students will begin their exploration of our changing planet.
  2. Show the students a hard boiled egg and ask them to hypothesize about a connection between this egg and the planet Earth. Record student comments on the chalkboard or on chart paper.
  3. Introduce the students to the selected text about the Earth’s structure. As a group, preview the text and illustrations to generate observations about what is occurring at different points in the text.
  4. Read the selected text to the class and attend to any unfamiliar vocabulary. Stop reading periodically to draw the students’ attention to information about the Earth’s layers and tectonic plates. As the students are listening to the text, direct them to take notes in the appropriate section of their booklets.
  5. As a class, discuss what the students can recall and, in their booklets, record pertinent information about the composition of each of the Earth’s layers. Guide the students to understand the following information about the Earth’s layers:
    • Core: Solid in the center, but surrounded by liquid.
    • Crust: The very thin outermost layer of the Earth. The rocks in this layer are cool and brittle (easily broken).
    • Mantle: Solid, but gel-like. Takes up the most space of any layer. Heat and pressure inside the earth can cause this layer to move. Nearly liquid areas of the mantle are known as magma.
  6. Direct each student to draw and label a diagram of the Earth’s three main layers in his or her "Our Changing Earth" booklet.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Divide the students into pairs or small groups and distribute a bag containing the "Tectonic Puzzle" to each group, making sure there is an even number of groups. In their groups, have the students put these pieces together.
  2. Ask the students what they see when they have completed the puzzle. The students should recognize that the puzzle is a map of the world.
  3. Direct the students to notice the specific way in which their puzzle pieces were cut, allowing them to compare the pieces with other groups. Have them share their findings. Accept a variety of responses.
  4. Explain that, when the mantle started shifting around under the Earth’s crust, it pulled chunks of the crust with it. These pieces of the crust and mantle are called plates. Explain that movements in the Earth’s mantle greatly affect the surface of our planet, most notably through the production of earthquakes and volcanoes.
  5. Show students the Web sites relating to Pangaea. Discuss the sites and attend to any questions.
  6. Assign each small group one topic-either "earthquakes" or "volcanoes." Make sure that each topic has the same number of groups. Explain that, in the "Our Changing Earth" booklet, there are questions about these topics. In the students’ small groups, they will research the answers to the questions for their assigned topics. The groups may decide how they will divide the research among the team members.
  7. Explain that, after the students answer all of these questions, they will meet with a group that was assigned the other topic. Then, the students will share the information that they found. Based on the research that these groups did, they will need to decide whether they believe that Crater Lake was formed as a result of a volcano or an earthquake.
  8. Provide each group with research materials appropriate for its topic or allow the students to visit the school library or computer lab in order to conduct their investigations.
  9. Allow the students an appropriate amount of time to conduct their research and to discuss their findings with their topic groups.
  10. Pair the groups with their topic counterparts (volcano groups with earthquake groups). Instruct these larger groups to share their findings and to discuss which natural occurrence they believe caused the creation of Crater Lake.
  11. Distribute a "Presentation Rubric" to each group and review this rubric as a class.
  12. Allow the students time to create a visual and oral presentation about the natural event that they believe caused this lake’s creation. In this presentation, the students should also explain why this event resulted in the lake’s creation. The students should also give examples and information about why the other natural occurrence could not have caused Crater Lake.

Session 5

  1. Allow students to present their research to the class.
  2. After all the presentations are complete, explain that Crater Lake was caused as a result of a volcanic eruption at the former site of Mt. Mazama.
  3. Reread the Klamath Indian legend to the students and ask them to listen again for clues that the Klamath Indians witnessed a volcanic eruption.
  4. Explain that this eruption was so great that it caused the top of the mountain to collapse, creating a large crater. When the eruption was over, the lava cooled off and hardened. In the years that followed, rain and snow filled this big crate with water, creating a lake.
  5. As a class, discuss what the students learned about the Earth from this text. Again, ask the students to hypothesize about a connection between the egg and the planet Earth. Peel and separate the layers of the egg. Guide the students to draw connections to the Earth’s layers; the crust, the mantle, and the core.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Minimize or add to the questions that groups must research.
  • Allow students to word process or dictate the entries in their booklets.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Direct students to create a flip book that shows the progress of the volcano’s eruption that eventually led to the creation of Crater Lake as we see it today on Oregon’s quarter.
  • Conduct a class experiment to help the students visualize a real volcanic eruption: Create a model volcano and cause a chemical reaction to simulate lava (suggested ingredients include water, red food coloring, liquid detergent, baking soda, and vinegar).

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.6 Language
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.6.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  • L.6.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.4.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • RI.4.6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.4.7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • RI.4.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • RI.4.9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.4.1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.4.2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.5.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • RI.5.5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • RI.5.6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.5.7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
  • RI.5.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).
  • RI.5.9. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.5.2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.5.3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.6.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
  • RI.6.5. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
  • RI.6.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.6.7. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • RI.6.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • RI.6.9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.6.1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.6.2. Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • RI.6.3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.4 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.4.7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • W.4.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • W.4.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 4
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.6.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • W.6.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • W.6.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Literature
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. 

Discipline: Science
Domain: 5-8 Content Standards
Cluster: Earth and Space Science
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Structure of the Earth system
  • Earth’s history
  • Earth in the solar system

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Culture and Cultural Diversity
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand and apply the concept of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns
  • enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns
  • guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference
  • encourage learners to compare and analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change
  • enable learners to assess the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups
  • have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes which contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding
  • guide learners in constructing reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues
  • have learners explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: Time, Continuity, and Change
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use
  • help learners apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity
  • enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions
  • guide learners in using such processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and interpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality, and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant and those that are inconsequential
  • provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment; and enable learners to apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Use of Spoken, Written, and Visual Language
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Research
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Writing
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Applying Strategies to Text
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: All Language Arts Standards
Cluster: Effective Communication
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

  • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

Discipline: Social Studies
Domain: All Thematic Standards
Cluster: People, Places, and Environment
Grade(s): Grades K–12
Standards:

Teachers should:

  • Enable learners to use, interpret, and distinguish various representations of Earth such as maps, globes, and photographs, and to use appropriate geographic tools
  • Encourage learners to construct, use, and refine maps and mental maps, calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and organize information about people, places, regions, and environments in a spatial context
  • Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems
  • Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth’s surface
  • Have learners describe how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals, and government policies
  • Provide opportunities for learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions of human beings and their physical environments, and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative
  • Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries, and the world
  • Direct learners to explore ways in which Earth’s physical features have changed over time, and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features

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