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Hardships on the Maine-land

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Summary

Students will examine the characteristics of Maine and will compare the experiences of the settlers in the settlements at Jamestown and at Popham, Maine.

Coin Type(s)

  • Quarter

Coin Program(s)

  • 50 State Quarters

Objectives

Students will examine the characteristics of Maine and will compare the experiences of the settlers in the settlements at Jamestown and at Popham, Maine.

Major Subject Area Connections

  • Language Arts
  • Social Studies

Minor/supporting Subject Area Connections

  • Art
  • Science
  • Technology

Grades

  • Fourth grade
  • Fifth grade
  • Sixth grade

Class Time

Sessions: Four
Session Length: 45-60 minutes
Total Length: 151-500 minutes

Groupings

  • Whole group
  • Small groups

Background Knowledge

Students should have a basic knowledge of:

  • Internet and textual research
  • Writing personal narratives
  • The writing process
  • The Jamestown settlement
  • U.S. Geography
  • Climate
  • Vegetation

Terms and Concepts

  • Quarter
  • Reverse (back)
  • Settlers
  • Settlement
  • Hardships
  • Climate
  • Vegetation

Materials

  • 1 overhead projector (optional)
  • 1 overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Maine quarter reverse
  • 1 class map of the United States of America
  • 1 copy of an age-appropriate text that explores the hardships and challenges faced by settlers in Jamestown:
    •  The Jamestown Colony by Gail Sakurai
    • Jamestown: New World Adventure by James E. Knight
    • The Starving Time: Elizabeth’s Jamestown Colony Diary by Patricia Hermes
    • James Towne: Struggle for Survival by Marica Sewall
  • Classroom Social Studies text
  • Chart paper
  •  Markers
  • Copies of the “Maine-land” chart
  • Reference materials which describe the characteristics of Maine
  • Writing paper
  • Pencils
  • Dictionaries and thesauruses (if available)
  • Copies of the “Popham Journal” page
  • Drawing paper
  • Crayons, colored pencils, and/or markers

Preparations

  • Make an overhead transparency (or photocopy) of the Maine quarter reverse.
  •  Locate a text that explores the hardships and challenges faced by settlers in Jamestown (see examples under “Materials”).
  • Arrange for the school librarian or media specialist to coordinate a set of appropriate reference materials which describe the characteristics of Maine.
  • Bookmark appropriate Web sites, on classroom or computer lab computers, which describe the characteristics of Maine or the Popham settlement.
  • Make copies of the “Maine-land” chart (1 per student).
  • Make copies of the “Popham Journal” page (1 per student)

Worksheets and Files

Lesson plan, worksheet(s), and rubric (if any) at www.usmint.gov/kids/teachers/lessonPlans/pdf/338.pdf.

Session 1

  1. Describe the 50 State Quarters® Program for background information, if necessary, using the example of your own state, if available. Then display the transparency or photocopy of the Maine quarter reverse. Select a student to locate Maine on a classroom map. Note its position in relation to your school’s location.
  2. With the students, examine the design on this coin’s reverse. Ask students to identify objects they recognize: a lighthouse, a rocky coastline, a ship, and seagulls. Ask students why they think these elements were chosen to represent Maine.
    Note: After exploring student ideas, you may wish furnish students with more specific background information. For example, the lighthouse on the coin is meant to be a rendition of the Pemaquid Point Light, one of the most visited tourist destinations in Maine, but it is also representative of the more than 60 lighthouses that line the shores of Maine’s rocky coast.
  3. Point out the date 1820 on the coin’s reverse, and share with students that even though Maine only joined the Union in 1820, it’s history among settlers extends much farther back. Explain that in the same year that settlers landed in Jamestown, Virginia (1607), the Plymouth Company established a settlement in Popham, Maine. The settlers that came to Maine, however, only stayed for a little more than a year before abandoning their settlement and returning to England.
  4. Ask students to look at the location of Maine and think of reasons why it would have been harder to settle the land in Maine than to settle the land in Virginia. (Student responses should include the idea that climate affects a settlement’s ability to thrive, and that Maine is much farther north than Virginia and, therefore, is much colder.) Record all student responses for display in the classroom.
  5. Tell students in order to appreciate the significance of this event, they are going to explore the records of the surviving settlement in Jamestown, and imagine the hardships that must have been faced by the settlers in Popham, Maine.
  6. Ask the students to select and read a text that details the hardships encountered by the settlers.
  7. Divide students into pairs and ask them to discuss and record the hardships that they learned about from this story. Each group will share their comments for addition to a piece of chart paper that will be displayed. Remind students that even though these settlers faced many hardships, their colony was still able to exist.

Session 2

  1. Review the list of hardships that the group discussed during the previous session. Explain that independently they will imagine that they are among the settlers of the Popham, Maine. They are going to write journal entries that reflect the hardships these settlers faced. In order to do this, however, students will need to conduct research about Maine.
  2. Distribute a “Maine-land” chart to each student.
  3. In the same pairs as before, the students will use library and monitored computer resources to research the characteristics of Maine that may have posed problems for settlers.

Sessions 3 and 4

  1. Once research has been completed, students will each draft three journal entries about life in the Popham settlement.
    Note: Explain that in the first entry, students will detail their arrival and initial reaction to Maine in the summer of 1607. The second entry will detail some of the hardships that the settlers have begun to face during their stay, and the third will recount the realization that the hardships have become too difficult to bear, and that the settlement is doomed to fail.
  2. Students will decide which journal entry they feel is their best work, and will work with a partner to edit this entry for content.
  3. Students will revise and rewrite this entry according to their partner’s revisions.
  4. Students will again work with their partner to review the changes that were made and will edit this draft for grammar, mechanics and spelling. Use whatever dictionaries and thesauruses the class has available.
  5. When ready, distribute a “Popham Journal” page to each student and allow them to complete their final draft of this journal entry.
  6. Students should illustrate their work and attach the entry to this illustration.
  7. All drafts should be turned in and final versions should be posted around the room.

Differentiated Learning Options

  • Allow students to illustrate in addition to, or in place of, journal entries.
  • Require students to use a specific list of vocabulary words within their journal entries.
  • Invite students to create a tourist poster of brochure based upon the information they learned about Popham, Maine.

Enrichments/Extensions

  • Allow students to create a computer presentation based on the information they learned during this activity. Ask them to compare and contrast the settlements of Jamestown and Popham.
  • Invite students to research their home state/town’s earliest settlers, and compare their experiences to the Popham settlers.
  • Work with students to develop and perform a play based on the class journal entries.

Use the worksheets and class participation to assess whether the students have met with the lesson objectives.

There are no related resources for this lesson plan.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.6.1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • RI.6.2. Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • RI.6.3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.6.7. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • RI.6.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • RI.6.9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.6 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Standards:

  • W.6.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • W.6.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • W.6.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: W.5 Writing
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Text Types and Purposes
Standards:

  • W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • W.5.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.4 Language
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.5 Language
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
    • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  • L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
    • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: L.6 Language
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Conventions of Standard English
Standards:

  • L.6.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
    • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
    • Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  • L.6.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
    • Spell correctly.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.4.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • RI.4.5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • RI.4.6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.4 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Standards:

  • RI.4.7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • RI.4.8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • RI.4.9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.5.4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • RI.5.5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • RI.5.6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.5 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Key Ideas and Details
Standards:

  • RI.5.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • RI.5.2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • RI.5.3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Discipline: Language Arts
Domain: RL.6 Reading: Informational Text
Grade(s): Grade 6
Cluster: Craft and Structure
Standards:

  • RI.6.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
  • RI.6.5. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
  • RI.6.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

This lesson plan is not associated with any National Standards.